In USA the differences between actual and theoretical energy requirements for selected mainline chemicals were nearly 80 million British thermal units per Imperial ton (Btu/ton) for organic chemicals and 30 million Btu/ton for inorganic materials.
Both of these usages were more than three times the theoretical minima required.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Industry leaders in leading forestry countries indicate that research and development on biorefineries and their design has progressed sufficiently enough to initiate projects.
The UNIQUE formulas for maximal energy efficiency, speed of throughput, and conversion of added value products can be continuously improved. The existing technologies are providing a starting point.