Pulp, Paper, Board and Packaging Microbiologist: "A paper machine can be regarded as an ECOSYSTEM, whose conditions are very stable because the strict adjustments of the process. It also acts as a BIOREACTOR with a continuous supply of nutrients and output of aged culture with its metabolites.
An essential feature of a paper machine process is its environmental stability (temperature, pH, redox potential, nutrients, stimulative and inhibitive factors etc.) which leads to the development of a selected, accommodated microbial populations in ecological 'niches' all over the machine. The risk of microbial problems cannot usually be taken into account when optimizing these controls. This can lead to an active, waterborne population of various bacteria with total counts of even 1000 000 000 cfu/ml. Many essential raw materials of the paper production like starches, mineral fillers and coating paste components have also beneficial effects on the growth and activity of microorganisms.
These microbiological problems get ever worse by the formation of biofilms and slime layers. Aged biofilms are not only restricted sites of microbial growth but they also release bacteria and bacterial spores into the water circulations of the paper machine."